Ukubuka konke kwe-Galantamine Hydrobromide

IGalantamine hydrobromide ngumuthi kadokotela osetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukuwohloka komqondo kwesifo i-Alzheimer's. IGalantamine ekuqaleni ikhishwe esitshalweni seqhwa iGalantus spp. Isengezo se-galantamine nokho siyi-alkaloid ephakeme ehlanganiswe ngamakhemikhali.

Yize imbangela yokuphazamiseka kwe-Alzheimer ingaqondakali kahle, kuyaziwa ukuthi abantu abaphethwe yi-Alzheimer banamazinga aphansi e-acetylcholine yamakhemikhali ebuchosheni babo. I-Acetylcholine ixhunyaniswe nomsebenzi wokuqonda okubandakanya inkumbulo, ukufunda nokuxhumana phakathi kwabanye. Ukwehla kwaleli khemikhali (i-acetylcholine) kuhlotshaniswe nokuwohloka komqondo kwe- Isifo i-Alzheimer.

IGalantamine izuzisa iziguli ezinesifo i-Alzheimer ngenxa yendlela esebenza ngayo kabili. Isebenza ngokwandisa amazinga e-acetylcholine ngezindlela ezimbili. Okunye ukuvimbela ukuwohloka kwe-acetylcholine kanti okunye kungukushintshashintsha kwe-allosteric kwama-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Lezi zinqubo ezimbili zisiza ukukhulisa inani le-enzyme, i-acetylcholine.

Yize inganciphisa izimpawu zesifo i-Alzheimer's, i-galantamine hydrobromide ayilona ikhambi eliphelele lesifo i-Alzheimer ngoba ayithinti imbangela yalesi sifo.

Ngaphandle kwezinzuzo ze-galantamine zokwelapha izimpawu zesifo i-Alzheimer's, i-galantamine ihlotshaniswa nokuphupha okuhle. IGalantamine nokuphupha okuhle kuyinhlangano ebikwe ngabasebenzisi ngabodwana. Ukufeza le galantamine kuthathwa isikhathi esithile phakathi kokulala kwakho ngokwesibonelo ngemuva kokulala imizuzu engama-30. Abanye abahlinzeki bezempilo bazokhuthaza i-galantamine nezinzuzo zokuphupha ezinhle ngokusebenzisa uhlelo olubukelwe ukugwema imiphumela emibi engadingekile.

Isengezo seGalantamine senzeka kumafomu ethebhulethi, isisombululo somlomo nangephilisi ekhishwe isikhathi eside. Imvamisa kuthathwa ngokudla nokuphuza amanzi amaningi ukugwema imiphumela emibi engadingeki.

Imiphumela emibi ejwayelekile ye-galantamine ifaka isicanucanu, ukuhlanza, ikhanda elibuhlungu, ukungaphatheki kahle esiswini noma ubuhlungu, ukuba buthakathaka kwemisipha, isiyezi, ukozela kanye nohudo. Le miphumela emibi ye-galantamine hydrobromide ivame ukuba mncane futhi yenzeke lapho uqala ukuthatha lo muthi. Zinganyamalala ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, kepha uma zingahambi xhumana nodokotela wakho. Kukhona neminye imiphumela emibi engajwayelekile kodwa ebucayi engahle ivele njengokuhlupheka ukuphefumula, ubuhlungu besifuba, ubuhlungu obukhulu besisu, inkinga yokuchama, ukuquleka, ukuquleka phakathi kokunye.

I-Galantamine Hydrobromide

 

I-Galantamine Hydrobromide

(1) Yini iGalantamine Hydrobromide?

IGalantamine hydrobromide ngumuthi kadokotela osetshenziselwa ukwelapha okuncane noma okulingene ukuwohloka komqondo ehambisana nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Isifo i-Alzheimer yisifo sobuchopho esivamise ukubulala inkumbulo namandla okucabanga, ukufunda, ukuxhumana nokukwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yansuku zonke.

Imithi ye-galantamine hydrobromide kungenzeka ingaphathi isifo se-Alzheimer esithuthukile kepha ingasetshenziswa nezinye izidakamizwa ze-Alzheimer's.

Kwenzeka ngezindlela ezintathu eziyinhloko ezinamandla ahlukene. Amafomu e-galantamine ayisisombululo somlomo, amaphilisi namaphilisi akhishwa isikhathi eside.

 

(2) Kungani isetshenziswa? ngubani okufanele athathe lo muthi?

IGalantamine hydrobromide isetshenziselwa ukwelapha izimpawu ezimnene nezimaphakathi zesifo i-Alzheimer's. IGalantamine hydrobromide ayikhonjisiwe ekwelashweni kwesifo i-Alzheimer's ngoba ayithinti inqubo ekhubazekayo yesifo.

IGalantamine hydrobromide ikhonjiswa ukuthi isetshenziswe ngabantu abanezimpawu ezinesilinganiso esiphansi sokuya ku-Alzheimer's.

 

(3) Isebenza kanjani?

IGalantamine isekilasini lezidakamizwa ezibizwa nge-acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

IGalantamine isebenza ukukhulisa inani le-enzyme, i-acetylcholine ngezindlela ezimbili. Okokuqala kusebenza njenge-acetylcholinesterase inhibitor eguqulwayo futhi enokuncintisana ngaleyo ndlela evimbela ukuwohloka kwe-acetylcholine ebuchosheni. Okwesibili, futhi kuvusa ama-nicotinic receptors ebuchosheni ukukhipha i-acetylcholine eyengeziwe. 

Lokhu kuphakamisa inani le-acetylcholine ebuchosheni, okungasiza ukunciphisa izimpawu ezihambisana nokuwohloka komqondo.

IGalantamine ingasiza ekuthuthukiseni ikhono lokucabanga nokwakha inkumbulo kanye nokunciphisa ukulahleka kokusebenza kwengqondo ezigulini ze-Alzheimer's.

 

Izinzuzo zeGalantamine Hydrobromide ku-Alzheimer'Isifo

Isifo i-Alzheimer senza ukuthi amangqamuzana obuchopho anciphe futhi ekugcineni afe. Imbangela yangempela ayaziwa kahle kepha lesi sifo esiqhubekayo siholela ekunciphiseni ukusebenza kwengqondo njengoku inkumbulo, ukufunda, ukucabanga nokukwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yansuku zonke. Okwaziwayo ngeziguli zesifo i-Alzheimer's yizinga eliphansi le-acetylcholine yamakhemikhali.

I-Galantamine isebenzisa ekwelapheni izimpawu zokuwohloka komqondo ezihambisana nesifo i-Alzheimer zenzeka ngenxa yendlela yaso yokusebenza okubili. inyusa izinga le-acetylcholine, i-enzyme ebalulekile ekuthuthukiseni ukuqonda. IGalantamine isebenza njenge-inhibitor eguquguqukayo futhi enokuncintisana ngakho-ke ivimbela ukuwohloka kwe-acetylcholine. Iphinde ivuselele ama-nicotinic receptors ukukhipha i-acetylcholine engaphezulu.

I-Galantamine Hydrobromide

Ezinye Izinzuzo Ezingaba khona

(1) Isibongo se-Antioxidant

Ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative kuyaziwa ukuthi kuyimbangela yezifo eziningi eziwohlozayo ezifana nesifo sikaParkinson, isifo i-Alzheimer's, isifo sikashukela, phakathi kwabanye. Kwenzeka ngokwemvelo ngobudala kepha uma kunokungalingani phakathi kwama-radicals wamahhala nama-antioxidants, umonakalo wezicubu ungahle uvele.

IGalantamine yaziwa ngokudla izinhlobo ze-oksijeni ezisebenzayo futhi inikela ngokuvikelwa kuma-neurons ngokuvimbela ukulimala kwe-neurons ngokucindezela okwenziwe nge-oxidative. IGalantamine nayo inganciphisa ukukhiqizwa ngokweqile kwezinhlobo zomoya-mpilo ezisebenzayo ngokwandisa izinga le-acetylcholine. 

 

(2) I-antibacterial

IGalantamine ikhombisa umsebenzi wokulwa namagciwane.

 

Ungayithatha kanjani le mithi?

i. Ngaphambi kokuthatha i-Galantamine hydrobromide

Njengakweminye imithi kuwukuhlakanipha ukuthatha izinyathelo ezidingekayo ngaphambi kokuthatha i-galantamine hydrobromide.

Yazisa udokotela wakho ukuthi ngabe uyaliwa yini yi-galantamine noma ezinye izithako zayo ezingasebenzi.

Dalula yonke imishanguzo oyiphuzayo njengamanje kubandakanya imishanguzo enqunyiwe, imithi yasekhawunteni, amakhambi noma eminye imikhiqizo yezempilo.

Kuyalulekwa ukwazisa udokotela wakho ngezinye izimo ohlupheka ukubandakanya;

  • Isifo senhliziyo
  • Ukuphazamiseka kwesibindi,
  • Isifuba Somoya,
  • Izinkinga zezinso,
  • Izilonda zesisu,
  • Ubuhlungu besisu,
  • Ukuquleka,
  • I-prostate ekhulisiwe,
  • Ukuhlinzwa kwakamuva ikakhulukazi esiswini noma esinyeni.

Umhlinzeki wakho wezokunakekelwa kwempilo kufanele aziswe ukuthi ukhulelwe noma uhlela ukukhulelwa nokuthi uyancelisa yini. Uma kwenzeka ukhulelwa ngenkathi uthatha i-galantamine supplement, kufanele ukhulume nodokotela wakho kungekudala.

Kubalulekile ukutshela udokotela wakho ukuthi uthatha i-galantamine ngaphambi kwanoma yikuphi ukuhlinzwa okubandakanya ukuhlinzwa kwamazinyo.

Imiphumela ye-Galantamine hydrobromide faka ukozela. Ngakho-ke kufanele ugweme ukushayela nokusebenzisa imishini. 

Ukuthatha i-galantamine notshwala kungakhuphula imiphumela ye-galantamine hydrobromide yokozela.

 

ii. Isikali sinconyiwe

(1) Ukuwohloka komqondo kubangelwa i-Alzheimer'Isifo

IGalantamine hydrobromide yokwelapha isifo i-Alzheimer's yenzeka ifomu elijwayelekile kanye namagama wegama le-galantamine afana neRazadyne phambilini abebizwa nge-Reminyl.

IGalantamine hydrobromide ivela ngezindlela ezintathu ezinamandla ahlukene. Ithebhulethi yomlomo iyatholakala ku-4 mg, 8 mg kanye no-12 mg tablet. Isixazululo somlomo sithengiswa ngokuhlushwa kwe-4mg / ml futhi ezimweni eziningi ngebhodlela elingu-100 ml. I-capsule ekhishwe ngomlomo enwetshiwe iyatholakala nge I-8 mg, Amaphilisi ayi-16 mg no-24 mg.

Ngenkathi zombili ithebhulethi yomlomo nesisombululo somlomo zithathwa kabili nsuku zonke i-capsule yomlomo enwetshiwe ekhishwa ithathwa kanye ngosuku.

Ukuqala isilinganiso se-galantamine amafomu ajwayelekile (ithebhulethi yomlomo nesisombululo somlomo) yi-4 mg kabili ngosuku. Umthamo kufanele uthathwe ngokudla kwakho kwasekuseni nakusihlwa.

Nge-capsule ekhishwe isikhathi eside umthamo wokuqala onconyiwe ngu-8 mg nsuku zonke othathwa ngesidlo sasekuseni. I-capsule ekhishwe isikhathi eside kufanele ithathwe yonke ukuze ikwazi ukukhipha kancane kancane umuthi usuku lonke. Ngakho-ke, musa ukuchoboza noma ukusika i-capsule.

Ngomthamo wesondlo kuye ngokuthi ukubekezelela kwakho i-galantamine ngendlela ejwayelekile kufanele kuthathwe ku-4 mg noma ku-6 mg kabili ngosuku futhi kukhuphuke ngo-4 mg njalo ngamahora ayi-12 okungenani isikhawu samasonto amane.

I-capsule ekhishwe isikhathi eside kufanele igcinwe ku-16-24 mg nsuku zonke kanye nokwanda kwe-8 mg ngezikhathi zamasonto ama-4.

I-Galantamine Hydrobromide

Okunye ukucatshangelwa okubalulekile lapho uthatha i-galantamine

Njalo thatha i-galantamine ngokudla kwakho nangamanzi amaningi. Lokhu kuzosiza ukugwema imiphumela emibi ye-galantamine engadingeki.

Kungcono ukuthatha umthamo we-galantamine onconywayo cishe ngasikhathi sinye nsuku zonke. Uma uphuthelwa umthamo, wuthathe ngokushesha uma ukhumbula ukuthi ngabe umthamo olandelayo awusondele. Ngaphandle kwalokho weqa umthamo bese uqhubeka nesimiso sakho esijwayelekile. Kodwa-ke, uma uphuthelwa umthamo wakho izinsuku ezi-3 zilandelana, shayela udokotela wakho ongakweluleka ngokuthi uqale ngaphezu komthamo wakho.

Ngokuya ngenhloso ehlosiwe, udokotela wakho angalungisa amanani akho ngokufanele ngokuwenyusa okungenani isikhathi esingamasonto ama-4. Ungazilinganiseli umthamo wakho we-galantamine.

Uma unikezwa i-capsule ekhishwe isikhathi eside, qiniseka ukuthi uyigwinya yonke ngaphandle kokuyihlafuna noma ukuyichoboza. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ithebhulethi iyalungiswa ukukhipha umuthi kancane usuku lonke.

Kumuthi wesixazululo somlomo, landela njalo iseluleko osinikiwe bese ufaka umuthi kuphela kwisiphuzo esingesona esiphuzo okufanele sithathwe ngokushesha. 

 

(2) Isilinganiso sabantu abadala (abaneminyaka engu-18 nangaphezulu)

I-capsule ekhishwe isikhathi eside inesilinganiso sokuqala esingu-8 mg esithathwa kanye ngosuku ekuseni. Umhlinzeki wakho wokunakekelwa kwezempilo angahle alungise umthamo wakho ngokuwukhuphula nge-8 mg nsuku zonke ngemuva kokungenani kwamaviki ama-4. Okwesondlo kufanele uthathe i-16-24 mg nsuku zonke njengoba welulekwe udokotela wakho.

Ngemithamo ekhishwa ngokushesha, umthamo wokuqala ngu-4 mg othathwa kabili nsuku zonke ngokudla yingakho i-8 mg ngosuku. Umthamo ungakhuphuka ngudokotela wakho ngo-4 mg nsuku zonke ngemuva kwesikhathi esincane samasonto ama-4.

 

(3) Isilinganiso Sezingane (iminyaka engu-0-17 iminyaka)

Imiphumela ye-Galantamine hydrobromide ayifundwa ezinganeni (iminyaka eyi-0-17 iminyaka), ngakho-ke kufanele isetshenziswe kuphela nabeluleki bezokwelapha.

 

iii. Yini okufanele uyenze uma kuthathwa ukudlula ngokweqile?

Uma wena noma iziguli oziqaphile zithatha kakhulu umthamo we-galantamine, kufanele ushayele udokotela wakho noma isikhungo sokulawula ubuthi ngokushesha. Ungaya futhi kwiyunithi yezimo eziphuthumayo esiseduzane kungekudala.

Izimpawu ezivamile ezihambisana nokudlulela ngokweqile kwe-galantamine ukucanuzela kwenhliziyo okukhulu, ukujuluka, amajaqamba esiswini anenkinga yokuphefumula, ukuxubana kwemisipha noma ubuthakathaka, ukuqubuka, ukuquleka, ukushaya kwenhliziyo okungajwayelekile nobunzima lapho uchama.

Udokotela wakho angakunika ezinye izidakamizwa ezifana ne-atropine ukuhlehlisa imiphumela emibi ye-galantamine ehambisana nokusebenzisa ngokweqile.

 

Yimiphi imiphumela emibi ehlotshaniswa nokusebenzisa i-Galantamine hydrobromide?

Ngenkathi i-galantamine hydrobromide inikeza izinzuzo zezempilo kubantu abaphethwe yisifo i-Alzheimer's, kungahle kube nemiphumela emibi ye-galantamine engadingeki. Bangu imiphumela emibi ye-galantamine lokho kungenzeka kepha hhayi wonke umuntu angazithola.

Imiphumela emibi kakhulu ongayithola ngokusebenzisa i-galantamine yilena; 

  • isicanucanu
  • oluhlanzayo
  • ukozela
  • uhudo
  • isiyezi
  • bekhanda
  • ukulahlekelwa ukudla
  • ukushaya kwenhliziyo
  • kwesisindo
  • ubuhlungu besisu
  • ukuqwasha
  • ikhala yisisu

Lezi zimpawu zivamile lapho uqala ukuthatha i-galantamine kodwa imvamisa imnene futhi inganyamalala ngokusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo komuthi. Kodwa-ke, uma beqhubeka noma beba nzima qiniseka ukuthi ushayele udokotela wakho ukuthola izeluleko zochwepheshe.

 

Imiphumela emibi kakhulu

Abanye abantu bangathola imiphumela emibi kakhulu. Le miphumela emibi ayivamile futhi kufanele ushayele udokotela wakho ngokushesha nje lapho ubabona.

Imiphumela emibi ibandakanya:

  • Ukusabela okweqile komzimba ukuqubuka kwesikhumba, ukulunywa futhi kwesinye isikhathi ukuvuvukala kobuso, umphimbo noma ulimi.
  • izimpawu zebhulokhi ye-atrioventricular kufaka phakathi ukushaya kwenhliziyo okuncane, ukukhathala, isiyezi nokuquleka
  • izilonda zesisu nokopha
  • Ukuhlanza okunegazi noma okuvela njengezizathu zekhofi
  • Ukuqhubeka kwezinkinga zamaphaphu kubantu abane-asthma noma ezinye izifo zamaphaphu
  • ukuhlukunyezwa
  • inkinga yokuchama
  • ubuhlungu obukhulu besisu / besisu
  • igazi emchameni
  • umuzwa ovuthayo noma ubuhlungu ngesikhathi uchama

eminye imiphumela eseceleni yokumaketha ye-galantamine ebikiwe ifaka phakathi;

  • Ukudlikizela / ukudlikizela noma ukulingana
  • izindlu
  • ukuzwela okukhulu,
  • i-tinnitus (ukukhala ezindlebeni)
  • ibhulokhi ye-atrioventricular noma i-block block yenhliziyo ephelele
  • isifo sofuba
  • nomfutho wegazi ophezulu
  • ukukhuphula i-enzyme yesibindi
  • ukuqhuma kwesikhumba
  • ukuqubuka okubomvu noma okunsomi (erythema multiforme).

Lolu hlu abaningi abanayo yonke imiphumela emibi ye-galantamine. Ngakho-ke kungakuhle ukuthi ushayele udokotela wakho uma uhlangabezana nemiphumela engajwayelekile ngenkathi usebenzisa lo muthi.

I-Galantamine Hydrobromide

Hlobo luni lwezidakamizwa ezihlangana ne-galantamine hydrobromide?

Ukusebenzisana kwezidakamizwa kusho indlela ezinye izidakamizwa ezinethonya ngayo abanye. Lokhu kusebenzisana kuthinta indlela ezinye izidakamizwa ezisebenza ngayo futhi kungenza ukusebenza okungasebenzi kahle noma kusheshise nokuvela kwemiphumela emibi.

Kukhona okwaziwayo Ukusebenzisana kwe-galantamine hydrobromide nezinye izidakamizwa. Udokotela wakho kungenzeka ukuthi usevele uyazi ngokuhlangana okuthile kwezidakamizwa. Umhlinzeki wakho wezokunakekelwa kwempilo uzokwazi ukushintsha eminye yemithamo yakho ukunciphisa amathuba okuhlangana kwezidakamizwa noma angaguqula nemithi ngokuphelele. Kungaba wusizo kuwe ukuthola imishanguzo futhi ikakhulukazi incwadi kadokotela evela emthonjeni ofanayo njengekhemisi yezinhlanganisela ezifanele.

Futhi gcina uhlu lwemithi oyiphuzayo bese udalula lolu lwazi kumhlinzeki wakho wezokunakekelwa kwempilo ngaphambi kwanoma imuphi umuthi kadokotela.

Okunye ukuxhumana kwe-galantamine hydrobromide yikhona;

 

  • Ukusebenzisana nama-anti-depressants

Le mithi isetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukudangala futhi ingahle ibe nomthelela ekutheni i-galantamine isebenza kanjani ukuthi ingasebenzi. Le mithi ihlanganisa i-amitriptyline, i-desipramine, i-nortriptyline ne-doxepin.

 

  • Ukusebenzisana nezidakamizwa ezisetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukungezwani komzimba

Le mithi yokungezwani komzimba ingathinta indlela esebenza ngayo i-galantamine.

Le mithi ifaka i-chlorpheniramine, i-hydroxyzine ne-diphenhydramine.

 

  • Ukusebenzisana nemithi yokugula yokunyakaza

Le mithi inomthelela ekusebenzeni kwe-galantamine hydrobromide.

Le mithi ifaka phakathi i-dimenhydrinate ne-meclizine.

 

  • Izidakamizwa zesifo i-Alzheimer's

Izidakamizwa zisebenza ngokufana ne-galantamine hydrobromide. Lapho le mithi isetshenziswa ndawonye ingakhuphula ubungozi bokuthola imiphumela emibi ye-galantamine. Le mithi ifaka i-donepezil ne-rivastigmine.

Kodwa-ke, eminye imiphumela ye-synergetic ingatholakala ngokuhlanganiswa okuthile.

 

  • I-Memantine

IGalantamine ne-memantine kusetshenziselwa ukwelapha isifo i-Alzheimer's. Ngenkathi iGalantamine iyi-acetylcholinesterase inhibitor memantine ingumphikisi we-NMDA receptor.

Uma uthatha i-galantamine ne-memantine ndawonye, ​​unokuthuthuka okungcono kokuqonda kunalapho usebenzisa i-galantamine yodwa.

Kodwa-ke, ezinye izifundo zangaphambilini azitholanga ukuthuthuka okukhulu ekusebenzeni kwengqondo lapho i-galantamine ne-memantine zisetshenziswa ndawonye.

 

  • Ukusebenzisana nezidakamizwa zesinye esisebenza ngokweqile

Le mithi inomthelela ekusebenzeni kwe-galantamine. Uma usebenzise ndawonye ungahle ungavuni ku-galantamine. Le mithi ihlanganisa i-darifenacin, i-tolterodine, i-oxybutynin ne-trospium.

 

  • Imithi yesisu

Le mithi ihlanganisa i-dicyclomine, i-loperamide ne-hyoscyamine. Kungathinta ukuthi i-galantamine isebenza kanjani.

 

  • Izidakamizwa zeGalantamine kanye ne-autism

Lapho i-galantamine ne-autism izidakamizwa ezifana ne-risperidone zisetshenziswa ndawonye. Kubikwa ukuthi kuthuthukiswe ezinye zezimpawu ze-autism njengokucasuka, ubuthakathaka, nokuhoxa komphakathi

 

Singawutholaphi lo mkhiqizo?

IGalantamine hydrobromide ingatholakala kumakhemisi wangakini noma ezitolo eziku-inthanethi. Amakhasimende we i-galantamine buy it evela kumakhemisi ovunyelwe ongahlinzeka ngemithi. Uma ucabanga ukuthi i-galantamine ithenge ezinhlanganweni ezihlonishwayo bese uyisebenzisa kuphela njengoba kubekiwe umhlinzeki wakho wezokunakekelwa kwempilo.

 

Isiphetho

I-Galantamine ngumuthi omuhle kadokotela wokwelapha izimpawu zokuwohloka komqondo okuhambisana nako I-Alzheimer's isifo. Nokho akusilo ikhambi lalesi sifo ngoba asisusi inqubo ebucayi yesifo i-Alzheimer's.

Kufanele isetshenziswe njengengxenye yokwelashwa kwesifo i-Alzheimer namanye amasu. Kuyisengezo esihle kakhulu ngenxa yezindlela zayo ezimbili zokukhulisa i-acetylcholine ebuchosheni. Inikeza izinzuzo ezengeziwe ekuvikelweni kwe-neural ngokuvimbela ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative.

 

Okubhekwayo
  1. UWilcock GK. ILilienfeld S. Gaens E. Ukusebenza nokuphepha kwe-galantamine ezigulini ezinesifo i-Alzheimer's. 2000; 321: 1445-1449.
  2. ILilienfeld, S., & Parys, W. (2000). IGalantamine: izinzuzo ezingeziwe ezigulini ezinesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ukuwohloka komqondo nokuphazamiseka kokuqonda kwengqondoI-11 Suppl 1, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1159/000051228.
  3. UTsvetkova, D., Obreshkova, D., Zheleva-Dimitrova, D., & Saso, L. (2013). Umsebenzi we-Antioxidant we-galantamine nokunye okuphuma kuwo. Ikhemikhali yamanje yokwelapha20(36), 4595–4608. https://doi.org/10.2174/09298673113209990148.
  4. ULoy, C., noSchneider, L. (2006). IGalantamine yesifo i-Alzheimer kanye nokukhubazeka okuncane kwengqondo. I-database yeCochrane yokubuyekezwa okuhlelekile, (1), CD001747. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001747.pub3.

 

Okuqukethwe